1. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) 20-200 ug/min, is an important indicator for the diagnosis of early diabetic nephropathy; when UAE persistently more than 200 ug/min or routine examination of urinary protein positive (urinary protein quantity is more than 0.5 g/24 h), that is, diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed. Urinary sediments generally do not change significantly, more white blood cells when suggesting urinary tract infection; a large number of red blood cells, suggesting that there may be other causes of hematuria.
2. Fundus examination, if necessary, fundus fluorescein angiography, we can see microaneurysm and other diabetic retinopathy.
3. Increased radionuclide renal dynamic glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and enlarged renal volume measured by B-ultrasound are consistent with early diabetic nephropathy. In uremia, GFR decreased significantly, but renal volume did not decrease significantly.
4. Urinary glucose characterization is a simple method for screening diabetes mellitus, but it can appear false negative or false positive in diabetic nephropathy, so the determination of blood glucose is the main basis for diagnosis.
5. In the late stage of diabetic nephropathy, endogenous creatinine clearance rate and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine decreased. Diagnostic criteria for diabetic nephropathy in clinical stage.
(1)There is a history of diabetes mellitus.
(2) Intermittent or persistent clinical proteinuria (positive urinary protein) for other reasons, which is the key to the diagnosis of DN.
(3) renal insufficiency.
(4) Retinopathy is associated with retinopathy.
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